March 2012
  • Added two pages with videos of the final of the traditional wrestling games in Maradi, Niger, 2012; summary and video of entire final. Added links to page in menu on home page, on sitemap and all 'sport and culture' pages.
  • Changes in spelling (adaptation to new spelling, including derived words): cerey to ceray; farta to fatta; harey to haray; ibare to ibar; jiri to jiiri; kubey to kubay; teji to teeji; wete to weete; yesi to yeesi; zari to zaari
  • Pages edited
    • Home page: removed 'old news', added link to 33th games
    • Grammar fact sheet: week and days: Zarma names of days adapted to new spelling and added definite form.
    • Start page Traditional wrestling: added info about the 33th final.
    • Photo session traditional wrestling: reorganised and added links to  wrestling videos
    • Link page: added link to Plan website with recordings in Zaram.

February 2012
  • Pages edited
    • Start page Traditional wrestling: added data of 33rd final and link to article about the installation of the organising committee.
    • Lesson 1:
      • full check of lesson, spelling of words and links
      • html-codes and javascripts adapted to Firefox requirements
      • added photo to introduction
      • added links in list of nouns to both new (yo and musu) and existing (hansi) pop ups.
    • Lesson 16: some small errors correct; like hine change to hino.
    • Mini photo dictionary Zarma - English: added photos, musu (cat) and yo (dromedary)
    • Edited general introduction page of website, of Zarma language and of course; o/a check of links and update of information.
    • Credit page: updated and added links to pfd files of SILs reports on Songhay language varieties.
    • Moussa Poussy page: text updated, broken links restored or removed, links to songs added (arné, gossi, nago nago, waino), and html-codes adapted to Firefox requirements.
    • Sitemap: added links to Lesson 16 and 32nd wrestling games; html-codes  adapted to Firefox requirements
    • Photo sitemap: added danaw, hansi, gangamizey, kangaw, kwaari, mo (eye), musu, simbarko and yo
    • Link page: all links checked and restored and/or replaced in case of broken links;
    • html-codes and javascripts adapted to Firefox requirements of following pages:
      • grammar content page
      • index page of grammar
      • guest book entry page
  • Changes in spelling (adaptation to new spelling): cebe to cabe; farka (singular) to farkay; nera to neera; ngoya to ngoyya; samey to samay;


January 2012
  • Added Lesson 16 plus exercises, answers to the exercises and update of dictionary with new words and update of index pages.
  • Added pages with a film about Waffa style of hair braiding (turuyaη). A film by Ibrahim Labo Kalla (Niger).
  • Additions and improvements regarding dictionary and words in text:
    • Introduction to dictionary: added additional literature and some additional notes about spelling of Zarma words.
    • Change of turi, /o (tree) to tuuri, /o. Addition of composed words with tuuri.
    • Addition of turi, /o (braid) and words based on this and all new words of Lesson 16.
    • Change of spelling of other words to make them in accordance with new spelling: zibi to ziibi; bankarey to bankaarey; alwati to alwaati; mare(y) to maray; nyumey to nyumay; wasi (and other derived words) to waasi; ηwarey to ηwaaray; matekan to mate kaη; kwara to kwaara; kwarey to kwaaray; ta to taa; karu to kaarusobey to sobay;
  • Pages edited
    • Mini photo dictionary Zarma - English:
      • added photos danaw, kangaw, mo (eye), and simbarko;
      • added information to tooltips (show translation)
    • Hippopotamus hunt: links added to film excerpts as the movie is presently not available due to a copyright dispute.
    • Credit page:
      • added additional literature used to improve this website.
      • update link to Henk Mengerink's website with java scripts.
    • List of domestic and wild animals: Latin name 'Bulbucus ibis' changed to 'Bubulcus ibis'
    • Pop ups with photos of animals:
      • added links to Wikipedia pages with information
      • added (under water) codes with meta name="description" and "keywords"
      • script for data update changed and unified.
      • tooltips scripts adapted (see 'solutions found' below).
    • Lesson 15 and subpage: link to Jackson Neisse and Noelle Smith (1995) updated.
    • Links to 'turuyan' main page added to all sport and culture pages, as well as to the index page and site map.
    • Brand mark changed (2012).
    • Start page:
      • Added link to ARNIBEL news letter in Zarma language
      • small change in page design (sub heading removed; direct links to log book and downloads added to heading)
      • Changed javascript to show Tooltips (see below)
      • removed 'page rank' of http://pagerank.rankstat.com, because information is no longer provided.
    • Solution found to show tooltips in Firefox (implemented in Lesson 16):
      • to show answers with special designed Javascript tooltips blocks; solution found at webdeveloper.com and used script from doctordirectory.com.
      • to show ALT text (attribute in img tags) in figures; solution found at petefreitag.com; used TITLE to show text, in addition to ALT.
        Adapted all pop-ups. 
    • Answer book: introduction page, table of content updated with links to answers of exercises of lesson 14, 15 and 16.

January-February 2011
  • Added pages about the 32nd editions of the traditional wrestling games in Tillabéri, Niger in December 2010, including video and links to more videos of these games. 
  • Pages edited
    • Link to Niger 32nd traditional wrestling games put on all sport & culture pages, site map and index page 'no frames' and on page with content menu on left site of main page.
    • Page with general information about traditional wrestling; added line to table and information about prize.
    • Brand mark changed (2011).

November-December 2010
  • Dictionary update:
    • several words added, special words provided by Somaco Pastor: plaaz, teekujinde sanca, baar, baji neerayan fu, and words related to manga, ham 

March 2010
  • Dictionary update:
    • several words added, words related to o/a doori/dooru, faham, hina,
      special words provided by Somaco Pastor: ganda hi, konjiri, dagara, 
    • errors rectified in B-page: bandu kwarey becomes handu kwarey (H-page), bara is partly bare,
  • Pages edited
    • General information page about wrestling; list of finalist 31st final
    • spelling change: labu/labo becomes laabu/laabo
    • credits, added thanks to Sandra Bornard and Somaco Pastor
    • lists with animals: sharpening definition of birŋa and alada, Dutch name for bessa added, alternative Latin name for Adenota kob : Kobus kob.  

January 2010
  • Added to grammar help:
    • counting
    • ordinal numbers
    • tell the time (clock)
    • week, day and day schedule
    • year, month and seasons
  • Pages edited
    • General information page about wrestling; both introduction and list of finalist
    • Brand mark changed (2010)
    • Table 13.D.2 improved based on suggestions by Alhaji Pastor (Antwerp, Belgium)
      underline: new; strike throughout: removed; italic: suggestions not yet used
      • I si ba ngey nda cere
      • I na nooru fày ngaey nda cera
      • Araŋ doonu cere se wala? (don = Koroboro senni dialect
      • Iri ga salan cere se. We will talk to each other
      • Iri ga salan ir nda cera game ra We talk amongst ourselves.
      • I go ga cere ckar.
      • Hayey kaŋ borey ŋgey nd' almaney margan cere ra?
    • Change in spelling
      • soro becomes sorro [times] and sooro [second story]; Lesson 12.B.3; dictionary
      • noru, noro [money] becomes nooru, nooro
      • fey [to divide] becomes fay
  • Dictionary update: several words added, words related to o/a caw, farhan, fay, goy, hantum, margan

December 2009
  • Dictionary update
    • several words added
    • start page improved to make dictionary better accessible for Firefox users
    • pages A-C improved
  • Pages edited
    • search options restored in start pages, ability to search in dictionaries only
    • wrestling photo session: added link to page with video about Tahoua 2009 final
    • wrestling video pages: added link to baŋawi (hippo hunt)
    • list of wrestling finials: direct link to page with video about Tahoua 2009 final
    • Lesson 6.D.4: waranka ihinhka si

November 2009
  • Baŋawi, the hippopotamus hunt, a film by Jean Rouch. Pages added with information and video links. Watch the movie. Link added to content and sitemap.
  • New book review added (In sorcery's shadow). Link to this review added to all other reviews and in content pages. Front page updated with link to new book review.
  • Added exercises Lesson 2 to Interactive Test Book
  • Added exercises Lesson 3 to Interactive Test Book
  • Pages edited
    • Lesson 1 up to and including 4:
      • links restored
      • new links added to Wikipedia to explain grammatical expressions
      • page lay-out improved (shorter page; tables centred).
    • pages about wrestling: links to sources restored via djerma.nl and lesahel.org, and several errors removed on 'Tahoua 2009' pages; links to 'Agadez 2007' installed on all pages. Link to 'Tahoua 2009' added to sitemap.
    • Start page: link to sport ad culture videos
    • Dictionary:
      • New item added to pages 'other spelling', see introduction page in dictionary for explanation. Two spellings for words with ŋ (ng) and ɲ (ny). 
      • Few new words added, e.g. baŋawi, meele.
    • Interactive Test Book,
      • right hand column with table, lay out improved, number of lesson added, non-active lessons dark grey, submerged button information improved.
      • lesson 1, exercise 7, link to picture restored.
  • Errors rectified
    • Lesson 2, answers, exercise 1:
      • line 1: Ay na farka fo day.
        Answer: I bought a one donkey.
      • line 5: Ay day bari fo da fu fo.
        Answer: I bought a donkey, a one horse, and one house a  camel.
        I bought a certain horse and house.
      • line 15: Wayboro fo koy kwaara.
        Answer: A certain / One woman went to the village.
    • Lesson 2, 2.C.3:
      • examples (3): II => I
    • Lesson 3, answers, exercise 5,
      • line 9, 12, 13, 21, and 22: added plural or singular from (araŋ or ni)
      • line 16: hunkuna instead of Hunkuna.
      • line 21: ? in stead of ?.
    • Dictionary, spelling errors on pages B (hippopotamus) and J (temporary)

March-April 2009
  • Added pages about the 30th editions of the traditional wrestling games in Tahoua, Niger in 2009, including two videos about the pre-final fights on 5 March 2009. 
  • Pages edited
    • Link to Niger 30th traditional wrestling games put on all sport pages, site map and index page 'no frames' linking to yeenandi
    • Page with content menu on left site of main page.
    • Page with book review "Zarma proverbs", some small errors removed.
    • Page Moussa Poussy (including page with additional information) link to correct YouTube page installed. Submerged button information translated from Dutch to English. Changed Poussi to Poussy.

February 2009
  • Added page about the yeenandi, the rain dance, a Zarma-Songhay ceremony of possession 
  • Nine references to old web page address (home.tiscali.nl/djerma) found and replaced by current web address (www.djerma.nl) in links to wav-files and stat-counter.
  • Pages edited
    • Link added to photo session page to connect to general information page about Niger traditional wrestling.
    • Link put on all sport pages, site map and index page 'no frames' linking to yeenandi
    • Page with content menu on left site of main page.
    • News about coming national wrestling championship in Tahoua added to page with general information about wrestling.

January 2009
  •  Added page with riddle with thanks to Ibu Ibrahim; new words (jandiize, yaasey, handarayize) added to dictionary.
  • Added pages about the royal sport of Niger: traditional wrestling.
  • Pages edited
    • Page with photo session about wrestling, linked to other wrestling pages
    • Page with site map, links to new wrestling pages, also Lesson 15, page with riddles and Zarma music and dance video pages linked.
    • Page with content menu on left site of main page.
    • index page, on 'no frames' page content adapted to new pages and some minor textual additions.
    • Brand mark changed (2009)
    • Wass wong pages edited and updated, link to new video and other web pages added.
  • New links added and existing links checked. Broken links marked or, if available, new address provided.

September 2008
  • Up-date of Moussa Poussy page due to his decease in June this year. Translation added of information texts on the pages with songs.

April 2008
  • Corrections Lesson 13
    • added indication to syllable on which the principle emphasis falls in word of two or more syllables (/) to lists of words .
    • list B.3, pronunciation 'bam ba ta' in stead of 'ban ba ta',
      and 'mo ro' in stead of 'mo ra'. 
  •   Changes in dictionary
    • expressions with hal  / hala added

Mars 2008
  • New review added; Yves Bernard's books about Zarma proverbs
  • All reviews restyled and partly rewritten.
  • Button added to entry page for easy access to reviews and main picture changed to button to access course information.
  • Photo sitemap updated
  • Music clips Kaidan Gaskia
    • new clips added: A min no berey, Hangane, Irya gokoy and Baby
    • title and links to clip changed 'Dix 2 retrouvés' in stead of 'nouvel ecrita' (it are the same clips).

February 2008
  • Added Zarma dance and music video clips with both traditional and modern dance and music. In total ten sheets with information about singers and music groups are now available with links to 26 music clips. Additionally,  there are four sheets with a traditional dance clip.
  • Update of dictionary with words related to music pages, amongst others taabandi, saŋ and so. 
  • The introduction page of the course is updated and easy links are added.
  • Updated Pronunciation Guide; pronunciation of letters c and j and footnote of interchangeability of letters f and h.

January 2008
  • Added photo to mini photo dictionary (danji, dey, duma, hansi, hari) and added pop-ups. Correction of links to photo sessions.
  • Checked all links and repaired broken ones.
  • Added new links:
    • Azawakh desert dogs
    • Songhay culture and language site
    • African localisation wiki
    • links related to World Culture Encyclopedia (Niger, Mali, and Zarma and Songhay culture)
  • Update of logo's with year 2008.
  • Update of dictionary with words related to day and dey
  • Corrections:
    • Lesson 11, added extra example in D.5 (dayko)
    • Lesson 15 corrected link to wandiyo pop-up in word list
    • Dictionary afallon changed to afollon

December 2007
  • Added Lesson 15 plus exercises, answers to the exercises and update of dictionary with new words and update of index pages.
    Remark: The loose-leaf volume "Practical method for the study of the Zarma language" (see credits) uses "ka" as verb-link conjunction. According to Bornand this is the Songhay-Kaado form of the verb-link conjunction, the Songhay-Zarma form is "ga".  Therefore "ga" is used in this course. This is in accordance with loose-leaf volume of a "French - Zarma" course I have in my possession. Also see bullet "corrections" below.
  • Removed scroller with news from start page (scroller gave problems for users of web browser other than Explorer)
  • Link to photo sessions added to start page and put on photo sessions pages
  • Added icon in web address (doesn't  yet work in Explorer)
  • Added two icon-links on main page to link to logbook and to CDROM course
  • Corrections:
    • in several lessons verb-link "ka" replaced by "ga"
    • in several photo pages dubble replace by double
  • New in dictionary:
    • added sources to introduction page and (partly) codes to translations
    • meaning and example added for wala
    • other word for haŋ'a (aha; source Bornand, 2006)

January - September 2007
  • Lesson 5: word for ox (dasi, daso) added
  • New links added,
    • site about hydrology in Niger and the semi-arid zone in general (in French)
    • article about Fulani and Zarma tribes pushed into fights by Desertification (in English)
    • site about Statesmen of and States of Niger (in English)
    • site about the Zerma team (in English)
    • Shannonigans notes from Niger, a holiday diary (in English)
  • Content of submenu "English" in Dictionary slightly changed (added direct link to I-test book)
  • Addition in dictionary:
    • Synonym for haraŋ and reference to lesson
    • meaning of bina sara, dasi,
  • Corrections:
    • mannaŋ (last year) in stead of manan (Dictionary)
    • hala honin stead of hale hon (Dictionary)
    • ga ba ga (Songhay-Zarma; to be about to) in stead of ga ba ka (Songhay-Kaado), see remark made at bullet 1 (added lesson 15).
    • kaa in  stead of gaa in Lesson 11.D.3, Appositives, examples: In the indicative mood, no. 3.
    • translation of reference to Bornand 2006 from Dutch to English in credits page

December 2006
  • New Interactive Test Book. Train your knowledge of the Zarma language on line . Exercises of Lesson 1 are now available. Credits page is updated.
  • Content of main submenu "course" slightly changed. 
  • Date changed in © indication
  • Corrections:
    • in error notification in Acutescroller: "find" in stead of "found" (thanks to Gabriel Guillory).
    • spelling of "diphthong" corrected in several places in pronunciation guide (thanks to Gabriel Guillory). Added a link to WikipediA article.
    • Lesson 1, exercise 1, line 3: "laid" in stead of "lay"

October 2006
  • Added photo sessions about millet production and harvesting of millet.
  • Added Lesson 14 (review Lesson), including answers in Answer book.
  • Lesson 4, introduction, information added about current formal prayer times. Added "almari" in table.
  • New download version (1.12.2). Off-line training will be easier with this new version.
  • Links with regard to Language and Culture checked and updated. Lost links to Miami Herald articles about Niger included in site.
  • Corrections:
    • space added for clarity in abbreviated words using ', unless abbreviation occurs within a word; m'a becomes m' a, but fej'ize (lamb) remains unchanged.
    • numbering of section 2.C.4 (was numbered as 2.C.5)
    • Lesson 3, §3.C", sub 2, answer is: "Ni foy ka baan, dey?", in stead of
      "Ni kani ka baan, dey?" (thanks to Daan Jans)
    • Lesson 8, introduction, word "hab'izey" corrected in two occasions.
    • Lesson 8, introduction, "Hama: Ni ma kaa !" in stead of "Ni maa ka !"
    • Lesson 9, verbs: "salan ... boŋ" in stead of "salan ... bon"
    • Answer book, lesson 12 exercise 6 answer 2: ~ live in that house.:  ~ goro fuwodin (without "ra").
    • index of grammar subject, "yan" texts with respect to gerunds adapted. Number of entries increased.
    • Automatic link to page with navigation updated for book review Songhay Kaado

September 2006
  • Added book review of the book of Sandra Bornand 's book "Speak Zarma. A language of Niger", inclusive of errata in PDF file.
  • Added photo to "Casting a pan" (photo of successful casting).
  • Update of credit page.
  • Easier scrolling through general introduction to the course due to internal links on page.

June-August 2006
  • Added lesson 13 plus exercises, answers to the exercises and update of dictionary with new words.
  • Book review added of the book of Jean-Marie Ducroz and Marie-Claire Charles about "Songhay as spoken by the Kaado of Niger".
  • Mini photo dictionary, six new photo's added (bankarey, haw gunni, malafa, sandurku, turi, wayno). Sitemap of photos and drawings adapted as well.
  • New and updated links: GRN site telling the story of Jesus in every languages, with recordings in Zarma, more information provided on site with music form Niger, in Zarma and other languages. Site to find cities, towns and regions in Niger, including meteorological information was added as well. And a site with language notes with respect to the use of the suffix "andi".
  • Free Nedstat counter removed because of banner advertising
  • Minor additions and corrections:
    • content of grammar per lesson: idiomatic winks added to listings

March / April 2006
  • Intro of Lesson 3: buttons of sound recordings linked to files on new web address. In addition "under water" information revised.
  • Lesson 6: lay out errors removed in the answers in the introduction.
  • Lesson 9, translation of intro: additional explanation of the expressions "ay jandi-jandi" and "ay naamey-naamey"
  • Lesson 11, intro page with transcription:
    • E-mail address for text suggestions changed to "webmaster@djerma.nl"
    • Buttons of sound recordings linked to files on new web address.

February 2006
  • Finishing moving the website to the new web surfer with new address ("www.djerma.nl")
  • Book review added of Sandra Bornand's book about "Discourse of the genealogical storyteller by the Zarma of Niger".
  • Photo session added about traditional salt extraction and making of salt bars.
  • Sitemap of photos and drawings added.
  • Check performed on broken links, link to Rosetta project and Language corner restored. New sites added about the 5th Games of the Community of Francophone and recordings of cultural events in Niger, with a special pages with sound recordings in Zarma.

November / December 2005 - January 2006
  • Started with moving the website to the new web surfer with new address ("www.djerma.nl")
  • Added lesson 12 plus exercises, answers to the exercises and update of dictionary with new words (o/a body parts introduced in Lesson 10).
  • Activated links to Lesson 12 in Lesson 6 and Grammar fact sheet "the verb to be".
  • New links to interesting websites, about the Songhay drink "donu" and the personal search for ancestry by the Miami Herald columnist Leonard Pitts.
  • (submersed) links to dipongs.html and doubledconsonants.html restored
  • links to Lesson 11 activated or specified in Lesson 7, Lesson 9 [submersed], Lesson 10.
    In Grammar fact sheet "conjugation of verbs", links to Lesson 10 and 11 activated.
    Added (submerged) link message "choose "cancel" to continue when pop-up appears." to all Grammar fact sheets.
  • Added text in Lesson 7.D.5 about expressing the idea of a definite article for nouns ending on "yan"
  • Index of grammar subjects extended; o/a suffix "yan" in relation to gerund.
  • Corrections:
    • Lesson 5, exercise 2: Alboro kuku fo => A tall man

September - October 2005
  • Added lesson 11 plus exercises, answers to the exercises and update of dictionary with new words (o/a: fatta, fattandi).
  • Mini photo dictionary, five new photo's added (bundu, mudun, tafe, tako, tamu)
  • Examples of pronunciation in Pronunciation Guide restyled and repaired.
  • Links to sound recordings of pronunciation examples in Lessons 1, 2, and 3 reactivated.
  • New (French) links added, one about Kassey a mythical woman in Songhay oral history, and one about polygamy among Zarma.
  • Credit page: added reference to Channel 2 Today.
  • Lesson 8.D.3, Table 5, "Boroyan si no habu." in stead of "... si ba ..."

July - August 2005
  • Added lesson 10 plus exercises, answers to the exercises and update of dictionary with new words (a/o: "turi nya", "nankulu, nangu kulu").
  • Mini photo dictionary, four new photo's added (buru, ciri,fakara, fobu)
  • New links added; a link about the marcanda (ritual of insulting) and website of Abdoulmoumine family (Dosso, Niger)
  • Old links checked and updated
  • Changed
    • "nyano" to "nyaŋo",
    • Lesson 6, exercise 5: "tali kuu si" to "tali kulu si"
  • Dictionary:
    • Letter A rearranged and put into alphabetical order.
    • words of Lesson 26 vocabulary indicated with "p" where relevant
  • Word added: "Almasihu" to Lesson 9 vocabulary and Dictionary

May- June 2005
  • Added lesson 9 plus exercises, translations of introduction, answers to the exercises and update of dictionary with new words.
  • A mini photo dictionary created using the photos published on this website.
  • Grammar help is extended with a fact sheet about the verb "to be".
  • Section about the negative of the verb "to be" in Lesson 8 has been extended with a topic about the negative of "ga".
  • New link is added to website with photos of Niger.
  • New symbol introduced in Dictionary (~) to indicate a difference between spelling of a word and its pronunciation. Added to gondi, words with hantum, konda, and ga ti.
  • Correction of errors in warnings with respect to lack of navigation when visiting a stand alone page.
  • Correction of errors in page with general information about the course. Some text added or clarified.
  • Correction of Zarma sentence attached to "fondo, fonda" (Lesson 5, pop-up).
  • Correction of under water text of content (Lessons 6-8).

Mars - April 2005
  • New lay out of menus at the main start page, answer book, pronunciation guide and dictionary. Warnings adapted with respect to lack of navigation when visiting a stand alone page.
  • Pronunciation guide: more accurate description of diphongs
  • Lesson 8: new photo attached to "zaama";
    correction of numbering of subsections of Grammar section.
  • page with credits supplemented with credits to designer of menu
  • Link to Savannah monitor website added to "list of animals".

February 2005
  • Added lesson 8 plus exercises, translations of introduction and answers to the exercises.
  • Links to lesson 8 activated (Grammar: conjunction of verbs; lesson 4.D.3; lesson 6.D.5).
  • Dictionary English - Zarma contains all words used in lessons. Names of animals listed in Lesson 5 are included.
  • Exercises of lessons place in separate web page, navigation remains the same (visually is seems one page), but:
    • faster loading of lesson web page and
    • ability to print the exercises only.
  • Intro of lesson 3 placed on separate web page to significantly increase the speed of loading this lesson.
  • Revision of page with links to other websites.
  • Revision and update of grammar content page and index page, now easier to search.
  • Update of site map.

January 2005
  • Course available for working off-line (download)
  • Search box added to dictionary start page
  • Selection "search in dictionary only" added to all search boxes

December 2004
  • check for spelling errors in all web pages with MS FrontPage
  • Introduction page to the lessons and credits page are rewritten
  • Zarma word bon rewritten to boŋ
  • Lesson 2.C.3 revised (transitive versus intransitive verbs and direct object)
  • Dictionary, letters A-F expanded, and intro has been rewritten.


Last updated: 23 maart 2012